According to the early regulations of Qing Dynasty, the wives and mothers of lords and princes were required to provide services at the imperial palace for a certain amount of time, but this rule was abolished by the Grand Empress Dowager. In addition, the descendants of the royal family were not allowed to intermarry with people of Han Chinese ethnicity. The Emperor had one of his most learned ministers explain the teachings of the book Interpretations of the Great Learning to the Grand Empress Dowager, much to her pleasure, thus she granted the minister a large reward. The Grand Empress Dowager did not interfere with the affairs of the state, but whenever the court had to decide on whom to choose for a particular position, the Emperor would often consult with his grandmother before making a final decision. She once urged the Emperor, “Our ancestors built this nation on horse riding and archery, so we cannot let our military forces be weak. Appointing people to positions and giving government decrees are the responsibility of the Emperor, therefore you must make the most moral and just decisions.” She also wrote to him: “Those before us say that ruling is difficult, as all of the people look up to the Emperor, therefore it is imperative to give ample thought to the methods used for ruling the nation, allowing everyone to be prosperous and stable, and keeping peace throughout the lands. You must be aware of the livelihood and education of the people, leading them through all matters of life; you must also be forgiving, lenient, kind and respectful; you must act in a dignified manner, speak with prudence, and must be diligent in your duties night and day, thereby continuing the legacy begun by our ancestors, and allowing us to live without any regrets.”
According to the old system in the early years of Qing Dynasty, Empresses, wives and mothers of Princes, Beiles, Beizis and Gongs were all mandated to take turns to serve in the palace (1). It was only after the Empress Dowager that this rule was abolished. The royal family obeyed the rules of their ancestors, who forbade their intermarriage with those of Han nationality. Kangxi, Emperor Shengzu in the Qing Dynasty, commanded scholarly ministers to interpret the book “Daxue Yanyi (The Explanations of the Great Learning)” and present to the Empress Dowager (2). The Empress Dowager was highly pleased and granted them a generous reward. The Empress Dowager did not interfere with affairs of the state, but when there were issues of selecting talents or promoting and demoting officials, Qing Emperor Shengzu often enquired about the Empress Dowager’s opinions before making decisions. She once encouraged Qing Emperor Shengzu that “our ancestors laid the foundation of the country in the means of horsemanship and archery, so the military strength must not be slacked. Appointing talents and exerting decrees both solely depend on the Emperor, so the Emperor must devoutly follow the ways of Heaven and make fair decisions.” Additionally, the Empress Dowager wrote letter to exhort the Emperor that “our forefathers were all saying that serving as a king is extraordinarily difficult, since the common people solely rely on the Emperor. Thus, the Emperor ought to ponder deeply over the means of governing the state, make the whole country prosperous and stable, and perpetuate the prosperity of the nation and the peace of the people. You should concern about the breeding and education of the civilians, guiding them from multiple aspects. Be tolerant and merciful, gentle and reverent. Be prudent of your majesty as well as your speech. No matter in the morning or at night, you should always diligently work on court politics in order to not only inherit the legacy of our ancestors, but also leave no regrets in my heart.”
(1) The Prince, Beile, Beizi, and Gong are different ranks of the Manchu nobility from superior to inferior.
(2) Based upon Confucian Classical works, Daxue Yanyi (The Explanations of the Great Learning) by Ming Confucian scholar Qiu Jun is a major work on the philosophy of governance and policy making.
According to the old rules in the early days of the founding of the QING dynasty, all Empresses and Concubines, Princes, Belies and their wives, and Beises and Ladys had to ask their wives and mothers to take turns to serve in the imperial palace until such rule was abolished by the Empress Dowager. In the imperial palace, they must abide the rules of the ancestors and not marry the Han people. Emperor Kangxi ordered some knowledgeable ministers to interpret “the Explanation of the Great Learning” and present it to the Empress Dowager. As it left a very good impression on the Empress Dowage, she made a generous reward.The Empress Dowager did not interfere in the political affairs. If there were something about selecting talents or promoting and demoting officials, Emperor Kangxi often asked the Empress Dowager’s opinions before making decisions.She once encouraged Emperor Kangxi to say, "Our ancestors built our country on the basis of riding and shooting, so military strength cannot be relaxed. Appointing talents to exercise decrees depends on the emperor, so we must respect heaven laws and make a just decision.” She also wrote to warn him that "the ancients said that it was difficult to be a king, and that the people all relied on the emperor, so we should think deeply about the way to govern the country, to make the whole country prosperous and stable, and to continue the national peace and security permanently. You should pay attention to the education of the people, and guide them in all aspects. To inherit the achievements left by the ancestors, you should also be tolerant and kind, be prudent and respectful, be cautious in terms of prestige and speaking, and be diligent in political affairs whether in the day or night, so that I can leave without regrets in my heart.”
According to the old regulations when the empire was first established, the imperial concubines, princes, Beile,Fujin, Beizi and Gongfuren should request either their wives or their moms to come to the royal palace by turns to wait upon the Empress Dowager, and this practice was not abandoned until her time. The royal palace followed the ancestors' rules not to marry anyone from the Han ethnic group. Qing Shengzu requested learned officials to read Daxue Yanyi to the Empress Dowager, who liked it so much that she awarded the readers generously. Empress dowager did not interfere with the court affairs, though Qing Shengzu usually consulted with her before making a decision regarding who to appoint and who to promote or demote.
she once encouraged Qing Shengzu saying that our ancestors established the nation as a nomadic force, and military power cannot be loosened. “It all depends on the emperor to appoint the wise and capable and to execute government responsibilities. Therefore, you need to follow the Way and be fair.” She once wrote a letter saying that “The ancient sage said that it was difficult to be an emperor, as each and every one of the people depended on him. It is worth deep consideration how to govern a nation so that it can be rich and stable and the people at peace. You need to pay attention to the living and education of your people, and guide them in every aspect. Be tolerant and respectful, and be prudent in your manners and words. Stay diligent with the government affairs day and night to carry forward and expand the achievements handed from the ancestors, then I shall have no regrets.”
According to the old system in the early days of the founding of the country which emperors, empresses and their families should let their wife and mother take turns to serve in the Royal Palace, It was until the grandma-empress period that abolished this rule. In the Royal Palace where they abide by the ancestral rules which is do not intermarry with the Han nationality. Qing shengzu ordered the learned minister to explain the meaning of the book " The Great Learning derivation" to the grandma-empress , the grandma-empress feels very good after reading and makes generous rewards to them. The grandma-empress has nonintervention affairs of state, But Qing shengzu often asks the grandma-empress before making a decision when selecting talents and lifting officials in the king's court. The grandma-empress encouraged Qing shengzu and told him "our ancestors built their country on the basis of riding and shooting, so military strength can not be relaxed , Appointing talents to exercise decrees depends on the emperor, so we must respect and obey the natural law and make a just decision. She also write to the king to caution that "the ancients said that it was difficult to be a king, and that the people of the country all relied on the emperor, so we should think deeply about the way to govern the country, to make the whole country prosperous and stable, and to continue the long-term national peace and security."Meanwhile you should pay attention to the education of the people, to guide them in all aspects, to be tolerant and benevolent. To carry forward the achievements of our ancestors ,Witch is for don't leave my life in regret.
According to the old system in the early years of the new nation,Houfei,Wang, Beilefujin,Beizi,Gongfuren were all supposed to order their wives and mothers to attend some members of the royal family in the imperial palace.The rule was abolished until the grand empress dowager came to rule the harems.The members of the royal family were not supposed to get married with Han Chinese in order to follow the rule of forefathers.Emperor Kangxi commanded learned ministers to explain the meaning of the book "Daxue yanyi" to the grand empress dowager.As a result of the grand empress dowager's praise,a generous reward was given to those ministers.The grand empress dowager didn't intervene the affairs of state.However,if there were some important affairs concerning promotion and demotion of officials and selection of talents and so on,emperor Kangxi often asked for the grand empress dowager's suggestions before making a decision.The grand empress dowager once encouraged emperor Kangxi and said"Our ancenstors laid the foundations of our nation by horseback riding and archery,so we must not slacken our military strength.Selecting talents and exercising executive orders are all determined by you and depend on you,so you must respect and obey the natural law,and finally make a fair decision."The grand empress dowager also write letters to warn emperor Kangxi."The ancients said that it was very difficult to do the emperor and all people depended on him alone,so you are supposed to think hard about how to run your country in order to enable all people to have a rich and stable life and the whole country to keep the state of security,peace and prosperity.You should pay attention to the people's education about supporting their parents and guide them in every aspect.You are supposed to be forgiving,merciful,considerate and respectful.You are supposed to be careful in your dignity and be cautious about your speech.You should be very diligent at government matters no matter how early or late in order to inherit the legacy of your ancestors and also protect my heart from regret.
According to the old system in the early days of the Qing dynasty, all princes and noblemen should let their wives and mothers take turns to serve the empress and concubines in the imperial palace. This rule was not abolished until the grand empress dowager Xiaozhuang. The royal family followed traditional customs of not intermarrying with the Hans. Emperor Kangxi ordered scholarly ministers to explain Da Xue Yan Yi to the grand empress dowager. She felt good and gave them very generous rewards. Xiaozhuang didn't interfere with the court, although the emperor often asked her advice on the selection of the talented and the promotion or demotion of officials before making decisions. Once she intended to encourage Emperor Kangxi and said, "our ancestors laid the foundation of this country, so military strength should not be neglected. Your Majesty has the power of appointing the talented and handling government affairs, so you must obey to the way of Heaven and make decisions impartially." In addition, she wrote to the emperor and warned, "the ancients said it was hard to be a monarch and all the common people relied solely on the emperor. Thus the emperor must ponder over the methods of governing to make the country rich and stable, to give it lasting peace and prosperity. You should pay attention to nurturing and educating people and guide them in all aspects; you should be tolerant, kind, courteous and respectful; you should be careful about your dignity and speaking; you should be diligent in handling government affairs in any time to inherit the great achievements of our ancestors, so I will have no regrets in my heart."
According to the old system in the early days of Foundation, empress,prince and duchess,grand duchess had to let their wives and mothers to serve in the palace by taking turns. The rule was abolished during the era of Empress Dowager. People in the palace obey the rules of the ancestors and do not marry the Han. Kangxi Emperor ordered knowledgeable minister to explain the meaning of the book "Daxue Yanyi" to the Empress Dowager. The Empress Dowager thought it was good and granted a generous reward. The Empress Dowager did not interfere with the political affairs. In the court, Kangxi Emperor often asked about the view of the Empress Dowager regarding talent selection and officials’ promotion and demotion, before making a decision. She once encouraged Kangxi Emperor, "Our ancestors relied on riding and shooting to establish the foundation of the country. Therefore the military strength cannot be taken lightly. The assignment of talents to exercise decrees relies on the emperor, so you must respect the God's will and make fair decisions." Then, she wrote a letter to admonish “The ancient people said that it is very difficult to be a king. The people rely on the emperor. So an emperor must consider deeply on how to govern the country, ensure the country to be rich and stable, achieve long-lasting peace and prosperity. You must pay attention to the education of the people, and guide them in all aspects. Be tolerant and kind, be gentle and courteous, be cautious in terms of emperor's majesty, and be careful when speaking. Be diligent in political affairs all day to carry on the achievements inherited from the ancestors, so that I do not leave regret in life."
In early Qing Dynasty, palace maid were ordered, by turns, to serve the empresses and concubines, prince and princess. Such ancient regime was abolished during the Empress Xiaozhuang administration.
Under the rule established by the ancestors, men in imperial palace should not marry the Han.
Well-learned ministers were asked by Emperor Kangxi to interpret sentences in the book of Daxue yanyi for Empress Xiaozhuang. Empress Xiaozhuang felt that it's very meaningful, and rewarded the ministers with great bounty.
Although Empress Xiaozhuang rarely interfered with political affairs, Emperor Kangxi always ask her for some advice on the staff members’ selection, promotion and demotion in the imperial court before making a decision.
Empress Xiaozhuang spoke encouragingly to Emperor Kangxi that the ancestors’ bravely riding and shooting laid the foundation of Qing Dynasty, and must not relax in our efforts.
The selection of staff members in the imperial court depends on the Emperor. Therefore, any officials appointments should follow what is right and be treated fairly.
Moreover, she cautioned Kangxi that it was a challenge to manage a dynasty as the Emperor. Strategies should be well thought out to ensure people live richer and social stability. More attention should be paid to people's raising at their birth, their education when grow up. As an Emperor, be forgiving, merciful, gentle and respectfully to lead your people. Also be upright and mindful in your actions and words. You should hard working with official affairs so that you are able to inherit the achievements and proprieties from your fathers, and leave no regret for me.
According to the old system in the early days of the Qing Dynasty, empress and concubines, princesses and duchesses, countesses and viscountesses, could all request titled madams to take turns to serve them in the palace, until the Grand Empress Dowager abolished this rule. In the palace, they obey the rules by the ancestors of not marrying the Han Chinese. Emperor Kangxi asked some learned official to explain the meaning of the book "the derived meaning of the Great Learning" to the Grand Empress Dowager, who praised the official and granted him a generous reward. The Grand Empress Dowager did not interfere in the political affairs but Emperor Kangxi often asked her opinions about selecting talents and promoting and demoting officials before making a decision. She once encouraged Emperor Kangxi to say, "Our ancestors relied on riding and shooting to lay the foundation of the country. Therefore, the military strength cannot be relaxed. It is all relied on the emperor from appointing talents to executing the decrees, so you must follow the way of heaven and make all decisions impartially." And she also wrote a letter cautioning, "The ancients said that it is very difficult to be an emperor, for his people all count on him. Therefore, you must ponder over the way to govern the country, to make it rich and stable and to achieve long-lasting prosperity and peace of the country. You must pay attention to child bearing and education, and guide your people from all kinds of aspects. You must be tolerant and kind, gentle and respectful, discreet in your manner and speeches. You must be diligent in political affairs early and late to inherit the achievements by the ancestors, so that I could have no regrets."