吉琳 Oct. 29, 2018, 3:32 p.m.

Translation exercises



  1. This report is prepared by TERA International Group, Inc. (TERA) pursuant to the terms and conditions of the Contract for Consulting Services dated 6 October 2011 covering Technical Assistance (TA): Railway Energy Efficiency and Safety Enhancement Investment Program –Tranche1 (the Investment Program). Asian Development Bank (ADB) provided $600,000 equivalent from the TA Special Fund (TASF-Others), on a grant basis.

  2. The outcome of the Investment Program will be an energy-efficient, safe, reliable, affordable, and environment-friendly railway transport system in the southwestern region of PRC. The Investment Program comprises: (i) the introduction of energy-efficient technologies, environment-friendly equipment, and safety equipment; (ii) a review of the existing institutional arrangements for integrating energy efficiency and environmental issues in railway management; (iii) conducting safety and energy audits of a nominated railway administration; and (iv) providing capacity building support.

  3. The Inception Report: (i) outlines the background of the Investment Program (ii) provides an overview of activities undertaken so far in the TA; (iii) establishes the schedule of activities which will be accomplished during the remaining time in the TA; and (iv) presents a description of specific tasks to meet the objectives and fulfill the requirements of the Consulting Services Contract.

  4. The main objectives of this Inception Report are:
     To review and confirm the relevance and applicability of the original Terms of Reference (TOR) in light of any changed circumstances (for reference, the TOR is included in Annex A);
     To suggest any amendments that may be required to the scope of the Consultant’s Work Program;
     To determine the impact on the scope that the expected Accident Investigation Report on the July 23, 2011 collision near Wenzhou may have on the major areas of focus; and
     To suggest any changes in level of effort in the energy efficiency component of the study and a corresponding change in the level of effort of the safety component.

  5. The TA will (i) (a) review the existing institutional arrangements for integrating safety, energy efficiency, and environmental issues in railway management and operation, (b) compare these with developed countries and identify the gaps, and (c) make recommendations for MOR to implement; (ii) undertake safety and energy audits of a nominated railway administration, identifying areas where improvements can be made; and (iii) undertake capacity building programs to familiarize staff and create awareness about safety, energy efficiency, and environmental sustainability.


  1. The Government recognizes transport infrastructure to be an important driver of economic development. There is an increasing awareness that the cost of transport inefficiency can threaten the economic growth of the country, either through the high cost of uncompetitive transport or the macroeconomic burden of inefficient railway operations. For supporting economic growth and effectively participating in the world economy, it is imperative that goods and passengers move rapidly and economically. Inadequate transport infrastructure will increase the cost of moving goods and people, and the citizens will pay more for locally produced goods as well as for imports and for travel. Exports will be less competitive and inefficient passenger travel will constrain people’s effective participation in the activities needed to promote the economy and social welfare. The overall impact will be to reduce the country’s well being.

  2. The primary objectives of the transport sector in PRC are to help enhance economic growth, increase PRC’s ability to compete successfully in world markets, and reduce inequalities in living standards throughout the nation. An efficient transportation infrastructure is necessary, but not sufficient in itself, to achieve these goals. For example, further industrial and economic development in the poverty areas is a prerequisite to reducing inequalities in living standards. Development in poverty areas requires an efficient transport infrastructure effectively serving the needs of businesses for low-cost access to raw materials and product markets. It also requires sufficient human and natural resources to achieve sustainable growth.

  3. As of the end of 2010, the PRC’s transport infrastructure comprised 91,178 route kilometers (km) of the railway network (66,239 km under China Railways, and about 25,000 km of joint venture railways and local railways, or being tested before formal operations begin); 4 million km of paved and unpaved national, provincial, and local roads; 124,200 km of navigable inland waterways; 2.76 million km of civil aviation routes; and 78,500 km of petroleum and gas pipelines.




  1. 该投资计划旨在中国西南地区建立节能、安全、可靠、经济、环保的铁路运输系统。其内容包括: (i) 引进节能技术、环保设备和安全设备; (ii) 研究现有的机构安排,将节能和环保问题纳入铁路管理当中; (iii) 对指定的铁路局进行安全和能源审查; (iv) 提供能力建设支持。

  2. 此开题报告: (i) 概括介绍了投资计划背景; (ii) 概述目前TA 已完成的工作; (iii) 为TA今后需要完成的工作制定时间表; (iv) 说明实现“咨询服务合同”的目标和满足其要求所需要完成的特定任务。

  3. 本开题报告的主要目标包括:
    根据情况变化,审查和确定原始“任务大纲”(TOR) 中实用和适当的内容(为便于参考,任务大纲已列入附件A);

  4. TA 将会 (i) (a) 研究现有的机构安排,将安全、节能和环保问题纳入铁路管理和运营当中; (b) 将这些问题与发达国家的情况进行比较,并找出差异;(c) 向铁道部提出实施建议;(ii) 对指定的铁路局进行安全和能源审查,并找出可以改进的方面;(iii) 开展能力建设并培养员工的安全、节能和环保意识。


  1. 中国政府发现交通运输基础设施对经济的发展有很重要的促进作用,并且越来越强烈地意识到无论是缺乏竞争力的运输所带来的高成本还是铁路低效率运营所带来的宏观经济负担都会阻碍国家的经济增长。要实现经济增长并有效地参与世界经济,必须实现客货运输的快速和经济。交通运输基础设施不充分就会增加客货运输的成本,对于本地货物和进口货物的运输以及人们的出行,都要付出更多的费用。出口商品将会缺乏竞争力,低效率客运将会限制人们有效地参与能够对经济和社会福利起到促进作用的活动。其整体影响将会阻碍国家的发展。

  2. 中国运输业的首要目标就是帮助促进经济增长,提高中国在世界市场中的竞争力,减轻生活水平不平衡的状况。为此,有效的交通运输基础设施是十分必要的,但要达到这些目标其本身的发展并不充分。举例来说,要降低生活水平的不平衡,首先要促进贫困地区的产业和经济发展。贫困地区的发展需要有效的交通运输基础设施来实现低成本获得原材料和进入产品市场。另外,它还需要充足的人力和自然资源以获得可持续发展。

  3. 截止2010年底,中国的交通运输基础设施涵盖了91,178 公里的铁路网(其中66,239 公里为国有铁路,大约25,000公里为合资铁路和地方铁路,或处于正式运营之前的调试阶段),400 万公里的新旧国家级、省级和地方公路,124,200 公里的内河航运道, 276 万公里的民航线路,以及78,500公里的石油和天然气管道。


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