实习报告(3)

将来 Dec. 9, 2018, 9:14 p.m.

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在本世纪初期,美国的教育产业市场容量为7400亿到8000亿美元,盈利性教育机构的总收入超过950亿美元,规模巨大。其中婴幼儿托管教育产业,占340亿美元的规模。经过将近20年的发展,当前幼儿教育产业,发展规模已经相当于之前的两倍。
目前,估计整个教育产业私有企业从业人员的数量在200万到300万之间。
参加学前教育的幼儿数量约九百万,选择的机构以幼儿园(Preschool)和日托中心(Daycare)为主,其中被送入日托中心的孩子比例最高,已超过40%。
就类型而言,对于学前教育,各个机构存在教育理念差异,大概分为四个类型。第一是“学术型”,特征是教育系统化;注重阅读和数学;为小学做准备。第二种,在美国最为流行,主张孩子通过玩耍、玩具来学习;老师控制学习环境、分配不同任务;目的在于培养孩子有自我约束能力和长时间注意力。第三种,不强调学术而注重孩子的创意和模仿,如扮演不同角色的游戏;学习内容包括园丁工作,家务等很多实际生活中的事情;教学中不鼓励使用玩具和电子媒体,教具多为生活用具;目的是培养孩子的感知和自我意识。第四是“发展型”,在美国也较普遍,主要发展孩子在体育、社交、认知等某一领域的能力;课堂专注于实际活动,由老师和孩子共同把握课堂学习环境。

At the beginning of this century, the educational industry in the United States had a market capacity of $740 billion to $800 billion, and the total income of profit-making educational institutions exceeded $95 billion. Among them, the preschool education industry accounts for 34 billion US dollars. Nearly 20 years after that, due to the development, the current preschool education industry get the scale which has been equivalent to twice the previous.
At present, the number of employees in the private sector of the entire education industry is estimated to be between 2 million and 3 million.
About 9 million children attend preschool education, with preschool and daycare centers being the main choice, with the highest proportion of children admitted to daycare centers, more than 40%.
As far as types are concerned, there are differences in educational concepts among various institutions, which can be divided into four types. The first one is the "academic type", which is characterized by systematic education, attention to reading and mathematics, and preparation for primary schools. The second, most popular in the United States, advocates that children learn by playing, toys; teachers control the learning environment and assign different tasks; the purpose of which is to develop children's self-discipline and long-term attention. The third one, the key to that is not to emphasize academic but focus on children's creativity and imitation, such as playing different roles in the game; learning content includes gardener work, household chores and many other real life behavior. It is not encouraged to use toys and electronic media, realia are mostly real life appliances, the purpose is to cultivate children's perception and self-awareness. The fourth is called "developmental type", which is also common in the United States. It mainly develops children's abilities in sports, social activity and cognitive field. The class focus on practical activities, and teachers and children handle the classroom as learning environment together.

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