医学类翻译

Jennifer_C Jan. 6, 2019, 4:25 p.m.
Translation exercises

医学类
中译英:
异基因造血干细胞移植(allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Allo-HSCT)是治疗血液系统疾病的主要手段之一,而移植前的预处理是造血干细胞移植过程的重要环节,预处理方案是影响治疗、不良反应及移植相关并发症的重要因素之一。经典的清髓性预处理虽然能最大程度杀灭肿瘤细胞、复发率低,但其并发症较多,且不适合用于年龄较大、身体状况差的患者。非清髓性造血干细胞移植的特点主要应用于那些不适合清髓性移植及年龄较大、身体状况较差的患者 [1],但可通过非清髓性造血干细胞移植后的移植物抗宿主病而诱导出移植物抗白血病效应而起作用 [2]。通常用于预处理方案中的免疫抑制剂有氟达拉滨和抗胸腺细胞球蛋白等。氟达拉滨作为嘌呤类似物可以抑制淋巴细胞增殖,抑制免疫反应,有利于供者造血干细胞的植入 [3],在移植的早期即可形成完全供者嵌合体 [4],减少了移植物抗宿主病的发生,日益在恶性血液病的预处理中得到广泛应用。
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT) is one of the main methods to treat diseases of the blood system, and preconditioning before the transplantation is a crucial process during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Preconditioning regimen is one of the vital factors influencing treatment effects, adverse reactions and transplant-related complications.The classical myeloablative preconditioning can kill tumor cells to maximum extent and make a low relaps rate, however, it may cause many postoperative complications and is not suitable for elderly patients or those with poor physical condition. The non-myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are mainly applied to those patients who are unsuitable for myeloabiative transplantation or are in advanced age or are in poor physical condition, after which would cause the graft-versus-host disease (the “GVHD”) to induce graft-versus-leukemia (the “GVL”) and take effects finally.
The Immunosuppressants commonly used in preconditioning regimen include fludarabine and anti-thymocyte globulin, etc. As a purine analogue, fludarabine can suppress lymphocyte proliferation and immune reaction, which is conducive to implant the donor hematopoietic stem cells and can help to form complete donor chimera in the early stage of transplantation, thus to reduce the occurrence of graft-versus-host disease (the “GVHD”), consequently fludarabine gains an increasingly extensive application in the preconditioning of malignant hematonosis day by day.

英译中:
Since protective tetanus and diphtheria antibodies decline with age, only 28% of persons >70 years of age in the U.S. are believed to be immune to tetanus, and most of the tetanus-induced deaths occur in people >60 years of age, it is advisable to offer Td, especially to elderly, concurrent with their influenza and other immunization programs if history of vaccination is unclear; boosters should be given at 10-year intervals (earlier for wounds). For the elderly who cannot document a primary immunization series or at risk due to contact or travel, administer the initial series. Boosters may be necessary for travel since antibody titers may diminish with age.
由于具有防护性的破伤风抗体和白喉抗体会随着年龄的增长而下降,美国>70岁的人群中只有28%的人能确认自己对破伤风免疫,而大多数由破伤风诱发的死亡高发于>60岁的人群中。如果不清楚自己的疫苗接种史,建议最好接种Td疫苗(即“白破疫苗”),尤其是老年人,同时要接种流感疫苗和接受其他免疫接种规划;每隔10年应继续接种疫苗补强针(10年之内如有传染疾病引起的伤口,也要接种与之相对应的疫苗补强针)。对于无法记录初级免疫系列、因接触传染疾病患者或外出旅行而有免疫风险的老年人,应执行初级免疫系列。由于抗体滴度会随着年龄的增长而降低,所以预先接种疫苗补强针对于外出旅行者来说可能是必要的。

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