医学翻译-英中

译无止境 April 13, 2019, 10:04 p.m.
Translation exercises

Source:
Cancer treatment
After a suspicious finding is seen using mammography or other screening modalities, biopsy is performed in order to guide treatment decisions. Current staging of breast cancer is determined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). It is a TNM (tumor, node, metastasis) system based on pathological and clinical findings.
Treatment for locally invasive breast carcinoma today is based on a multidisciplinary approach with combined surgery, radiotherapy and adjuvant systemic therapy. A major difference from the historical approach is that radical mastectomies are rarely indicated. The most common surgical procedure is the modified radical mastectomy, which removes the breast to the underlying pectoral fascia and includes some of the adjacent lymph nodes. This procedure is equivalent in efficacy to the classic radical mastectomy. Breast conserving therapy (BCT) or lumpectomy removes only the bulk of the tumor and moderate dose radiation therapy (RT) is then used to eradicate remaining cancerous cells. This is an important issue since it has been shown that additional cancer foci exist at a distance from the primary site. However, BCT with RT has been shown to be equivalent to modified radical mastectomy in both survival and local recurrence6. Adjuvant systemic therapy decreases the likelihood of local recurrence when combined with BCT and RT, but not after BCT alone.
The addition of RT to systemic therapy (chemotherapy or hormonal therapy) following mastectomy in node-positive patients decreases local recurrence rates and moderately improves survival. Radiation therapy should be considered on an individual basis due to its late cardiac mortality and other serious complications.

Translation:
癌症治疗
在使用乳腺X线摄影或其他筛查方法发现可疑结果后进行活组织检查,以指导治疗决策。目前的乳腺癌分期是由美国癌症联合委员会(AJCC)确定的,这是一种基于病理学和临床结果的TNM(肿瘤、淋巴结、转移)系统。
现今针对局部浸润性乳腺癌的治疗是基于多学科方法结合手术、放射疗法以及辅助性全身疗法。这与传统方法的主要区别在于极少进行根治性乳房切除术。最常见的手术操作是改良乳腺根治切除术,即将乳房切除至皮下胸肌筋膜并且包括一些相邻淋巴结。该手术在疗效上与经典乳房根治切除术相当。保乳术(BCT)或乳房肿块切除术仅切除大块肿瘤组织,然后使用中等剂量的放射疗法(RT)根除剩余癌细胞。由于已有研究表明在距原发部位一定距离处存在其他癌灶,则上述治疗方法存在重大问题。但是 ,已有研究表明BCT联合RT在生存期和局部复发方面的疗效与改良乳腺根治切除术相同6。辅助性全身疗法与BCT和RT联用后可降低局部复发的可能性,但仅使用BCT后则不会降低局部复发的可能性。
淋巴结阳性患者行乳房切除术后接受全身疗法(化疗或激素疗法)添加RT治疗可降低局部复发率并可适度改善生存期。由于RT的晚期心源性死亡和其他严重并发症,应根据个体情况考虑给予放射疗法。

0 likes